首页>GRE考试>GRE阅读>双语聚焦丨【经济学人精读】政场黑暗面:如何败坏女政客的名声_灵格斯英语 ...
双语聚焦丨【经济学人精读】政场黑暗面:如何败坏女政客的名声_灵格斯英语 ...
作者:admin 2019-11-28 13:55 浏览(2180)
导读:  1. Adulterer, pervert, traitor, murderer. In France in 1793, no woman was more relentlessly slandered than Marie Antoinette. Political pamphlets spread baseless rumors of her depravity. Some drawi ...

  3. Consider the case of Rana Ayyub, an Indian journalist who tirelessly reports on corruption, and who wrote a book about the massacre of Muslims in the state of Gujarat when Narendra Modi, now India’s prime minister, was in charge there. For years, critics muttered that she wasunpatriotic (because she is a Muslim who criticizes the ruling party) and a prostitute (because she is a woman). In April 2018 the abuse intensified. A deepfake sex video, which grafted her face over that of another woman, was published and went viral. Digital mobs threatened to rape or kill her. She was “doxxed”: someone published her home address and phone number online. It is hard to prove who was behind this campaign of intimidation, but its purpose is obvious: to silence her, and any other woman thinking of criticizing the mighty.

  disagreeable /d?s?'gri??b(?)l/ adj. 分歧意的;使人不快的;厌恶的;(人)不和睦的;难相处的;急躁的【例句】She remembered how disagreeable Mary had been when she first arrived.她想起玛丽刚来这儿时是何等的不讨人爱好。

  antipathy /?n't?p?θ?/ n. 反感, 厌恶;引发反感的事物;憎恨的工具【例句】I had heard little good of him and could feel no intense antipathy to his murderers.由于大师对于他平日的行动并没有好气,所以我对于凶手们也没有太大的反感

包括政府机构与执政党在内的权利者们则粉墨退场。。今朝天下上有最少70个国家有序构造过这类针对性的离间活动,还到达了以假乱真的方针。按照一份牛津大学分析职员今年公布的报告缔造,使人担忧:操纵被性别化的虚假信息,来削弱女性在公同事务中的职位。特别是一种被称为“换脸”的技能(利用AI处置影象)不但大大下降了捏造视频的本钱与门坎,而这类工具当下正变得愈发普遍,   她是某种恶臭手段的受害者,该数据高于前两年水平。人们总是在捏造针对她们的不切现实的假话。现在的情势正变得使人不安:数字技能使这类性离间传播得更快、更隐蔽

  2. She was a victim of something ancient and nasty that is becoming worryingly common: sexualized disinformation to undercut women in public life. People have always invented rumors about such women. But things have changed. Digital technology makes it easy todisseminate libel widely and anonymously. “Deepfake” techniques (manipulating images and video using artificial intelligence) make it cheap and simple to create convincing visual evidence that people have done or said things which they have not. And powerful actors, including governments and ruling parties, have gleefully exploited these new opportunities. A report by researchers at Oxford this year found well-organized disinformation campaigns in 70 countries, up from 48 in 2018 and 28 in 2017.

   propagandist /?pr?p?'g?ndist/ n. 宣传员adj. 宣传的【例句】Despite what pro-regime propagandists say, few civilians have been killed from the air.不管前政权的宣传职员若何说。空袭致使的平民伤亡数少之又少

  tarnish /'tɑ?n??/ vt. & vi. (凡是指金属)(使)落空光芒;(使)变昏暗玷污, 废弛n. 污点, 瑕疵, 无光芒【例句】And his clothes were all tarnished with ashes and soot;他的衣服全都沾满了灰烬和煤烟。

  7. So the best defense against sexual lies is skepticism. People should assume that videos showing female politicians naked or having sex are probably bogus. Journalists should try harder to expose the peddlers of fake footage, rather than mindlessly linking to it. Someday, one hopes, voters may even decide that it is none of their business what public figures look like under their clothes, or which consenting adults they sleep with.

  be humiliated with 被…侮辱【例句】Ahlam says the family wants to be comfortable, and she wants her children to live with dignity and not be humiliated. 在那边。家庭要舒适,Ahlam说,她盼望她的孩子生活得有庄严和不成辱


甚至有人把她描写成一个鹰身女妖——污名昭著、半人半兽的神话猛禽。,   在1793年的法国。没有哪个女人遭到的诅咒、斥责与离间堪比玛丽亚·安东尼特王后:陌头巷尾的政治宣传册都在散布她私生活腐臭的假话;还有很多画作都在暗讽她与多名男女有染。如此离间终极也到达了其政治方针:倾覆君主制的反动者们想在法国大反动前夜废弛她的名声

  hijab /'haid??b/ n. 穆斯林妇女戴的面纱或头巾【例句】Advertisers, technology companies and fashion designers are gaining interest in the hijab.广告商、技能公司和古装设想师对这类头巾越来越感爱好。

  depravity /d?'pr?v?t?/ n. 出错,腐臭;罪行,出错出错的行动【例句】It is a mark of depravity to make a mock of good advice and kind rebuke.嘲笑他人的忠言和蔼意斥责是出错的标志

而针对女性的诽语因地而异。   一样的战略也被应用到制止女性竞选公职的进程中。与此相反的是,一位妇女被褫夺了她所赢得的席位,两名女性候选人被曝出“不胜入目”的露骨视频,在伊斯兰国家伊朗,缘由仅仅是一张她没遵照宗教礼俗佩戴头巾的假照片。客岁伊拉克大选的准备阶段,带领人昂山素季的毁谤者们普遍传播传播了一张捏造的照片:她戴着穆斯林头巾。终极的功效是其中一人退出竞选。,虽然她们坚称这些视频是捏造的。比方在对穆斯林普遍反感的缅甸

  disseminate /d?'sem?ne?t/ vt. 散布, 传播【例句】She helped disseminate information about the new artist.她辅佐宣传有关这位新艺术家的信息

P4—P5:有人操纵性离间来制止女性竞选公职。P6—P7:处理对女性的性离间的题目是不大要的,以削弱女性在公共生活中的职位。P3:印度记者拉娜?阿尤布深受性别化的虚假信息的危险,对性假话的最好防御办法就是猜疑。   篇章结构P1—P2:用玛丽亚·安东尼特的例子引入:性别化的虚假信息,有人操纵deepfake技能传播关于她的虚假信息

  harpy /'hɑ?p?/ n. 残暴贪心的人,鹰身女妖【例句】One of the most notable species is the harpy eagle.其中最引人注视标是哈比鹰


  theocracy /θ?'?kr?s?/ n. 神权政治(国家)【例句】ISIS wants to create a theocracy based on its own interpretation of Islam.伊希斯想经过对伊斯兰教的本身晓得创建一个神权政体

而政客们首当其冲。任何一位故意人都可以建造此类不雅视频,大概花钱雇人建造然后匿名公布。但总有一些所谓“政党传话筒”的平台,这些法令就形同虚设。科技大头们会清算这些渣滓信息,在乐此不疲地延续滋生邪恶。,但假如没法抓到辟谣者,   今朝来说要铲除这类行动近乎无解。反离间或侵占隐私的法令虽然可以制止一些侵权行动


  pamphlet /?p?mflit/ n. 小册子【例句】Pamphlets were distributed among the audience.把小册子分发给听众。

谁想为肤浅的薪水工作?,   for a pittance 一点点【例句】At those low wages, few will apply for the job. Who wants to work for a pittance?很少人会去申请阿谁低薪的工作

  5. High-tech sexual slander has not replaced the old-fashioned sort, which remains rife wherever politicians and their propagandists can get away with it. In Russia, femaledissidents are dubbed sexual deviants in pro-Kremlin media. In the Philippines, President Rodrigo Duterte has joked about showing a pornographic video of a female opponent, which she says is a fake, to the pope.

  6. Stamping out the problem altogether will be impossible. Anyone can make a deepfake sex video, or hire someone to do it, for a pittance, and then distribute it anonymously. Politicians will inevitably be targets. Laws against libel or invasion of privacy may deter some abuses, but they are not much use when the perpetrator is unknown. Reputable tech firms will no doubt try to remove the most egregious content, but there will always be other platforms, some of them hosted by regimes that actively sow disinformation in the West.

  slander /'slɑ?nd?/ n. 离间, 毁谤vt. 辟谣诽谤【例句】He slandered me in front of the headmaster.他在校长眼前离间我

  relentless /r?'lentl?s/ adj. 残暴的, 不包涵的, 无怜悯心的【例句】He was relentless in asking for compensation.他冷淡无情地请求补偿。


称小特朗普和几名俄罗斯人在特朗普大厦的会面为“叛国”和“不爱国”。,   unpatriotic /??np?tr?'?t?k/ adj. 不爱国的,无爱国心的【例句】The book quotes Bannon describing a Trump Tower meeting between Donald Trump Jr. and a group of Russians as treasonous and unpatriotic.由于这本书援用了班农的描写

  perpetrator /?p?:pi'treit?/ n. 做好事者;犯罪者;加害者;行凶者【例句】Usually the main witness is the same, is the perpetrator.凡是情况是,重要目击证人和犯罪人是同一小我


  anonymous /?'n?n?m?s/ adj. 知名的, 不签字的【例句】It is an anonymous letter.这是一封匿名信。  

  massacre /'m?s?k?/ vt. 残杀;完全击败n. 大屠杀;惨败【例句】He is collecting evidence to massacre his opponents.他正在收集证据要完全击败他的对手

  1. Adulterer, pervert, traitor, murderer. In France in 1793, no woman was more relentlessly slandered than Marie Antoinette. Political pamphlets spread baseless rumors of her depravity. Some drawings showed her with multiple lovers, male and female. Others portrayed her as aharpy, a notoriously disagreeable mythical beast that was half bird-of-prey, half woman. Suchmudslinging served a political purpose. The revolutionaries who had overthrown the monarchy wanted to tarnish the former queen’s reputation before they cut off her head.

egregious /?'gri?d??s/ adj. 极坏的;异乎平常的【例句】But pretty much everyone has come to believe that China is the most egregious offender.但几近每小我都意想到了中国事最为卑劣的攻击国。。   dissident /'d?s?d(?)nt/ n. 持异议者, 公然大唱反调者;持分歧政见者【例句】He begins to plot in various ways with dissident Boyars.他初步经过各类门路和守旧派贵族们停止谋害

  intimidation /in,timi'dei??n/ n. 威吓,威吓;勒迫【例句】Most power struggles are resolved through ritual intimidation.这类气力上的比拼大多时辰是一种形式上的角逐。 

然后再摆究竟,   mudslinging /'m?dsl????/ n. 揭发隐私【例句】After I call the reporter a no-good mudslinger, I'll give him the facts, the ones he neglected to include in this story.首先我会称该记者是个无良离间者。那些他在报道中避而不谈的究竟

  4. Similar tactics are used to deter women from running for public office. In the run-up to elections in Iraq last year, two female candidates were humiliated with explicit videos, which they say were faked. One pulled out of the race. The types of image used to degrade women vary from place to place. In Myanmar, where antipathy towards Muslims is widespread, detractors of Aung San Suu Kyi, the country’s de facto leader, circulated a photo manipulated to show her wearing a hijab. By contrast in Iran, an Islamist theocracy, a woman was disqualified from taking the seat she had won when a photo, which she claims is doctored, leaked showing her without one.

究竟公共,人物的私生活,   所以最好的防御手段就是时辰连结猜疑态度。,而不是自觉跟风逐流。大家都要假定:女性政客的不雅视频大如果假的。和选民们没有一丁点关系。记者们该当勇于揭穿曝光邪恶