3. Consider the case of Rana Ayyub, an Indian journalist who tirelessly reports on corruption, and who wrote a book about the massacre of Muslims in the state of Gujarat when Narendra Modi, now India’s prime minister, was in charge there. For years, critics muttered that she wasunpatriotic (because she is a Muslim who criticizes the ruling party) and a prostitute (because she is a woman). In April 2018 the abuse intensified. A deepfake sex video, which grafted her face over that of another woman, was published and went viral. Digital mobs threatened to rape or kill her. She was “doxxed”: someone published her home address and phone number online. It is hard to prove who was behind this campaign of intimidation, but its purpose is obvious: to silence her, and any other woman thinking of criticizing the mighty.
disagreeable /d?s?'gri??b(?)l/ adj. 分歧意的;使人不快的;厌恶的;(人)不和睦的;难相处的;急躁的【例句】She remembered how disagreeable Mary had been when she first arrived.她想起玛丽刚来这儿时是何等的不讨人爱好。
antipathy /?n't?p?θ?/ n. 反感, 厌恶;引发反感的事物;憎恨的工具【例句】I had heard little good of him and could feel no intense antipathy to his murderers.由于大师对于他平日的行动并没有好气，所以我对于凶手们也没有太大的反感
2. She was a victim of something ancient and nasty that is becoming worryingly common: sexualized disinformation to undercut women in public life. People have always invented rumors about such women. But things have changed. Digital technology makes it easy todisseminate libel widely and anonymously. “Deepfake” techniques (manipulating images and video using artificial intelligence) make it cheap and simple to create convincing visual evidence that people have done or said things which they have not. And powerful actors, including governments and ruling parties, have gleefully exploited these new opportunities. A report by researchers at Oxford this year found well-organized disinformation campaigns in 70 countries, up from 48 in 2018 and 28 in 2017.
propagandist /?pr?p?'g?ndist/ n. 宣传员adj. 宣传的【例句】Despite what pro-regime propagandists say, few civilians have been killed from the air.不管前政权的宣传职员若何说。空袭致使的平民伤亡数少之又少
tarnish /'tɑ?n??/ vt. & vi. (凡是指金属)(使)落空光芒;(使)变昏暗玷污, 废弛n. 污点, 瑕疵, 无光芒【例句】And his clothes were all tarnished with ashes and soot;他的衣服全都沾满了灰烬和煤烟。
7. So the best defense against sexual lies is skepticism. People should assume that videos showing female politicians naked or having sex are probably bogus. Journalists should try harder to expose the peddlers of fake footage, rather than mindlessly linking to it. Someday, one hopes, voters may even decide that it is none of their business what public figures look like under their clothes, or which consenting adults they sleep with.
be humiliated with 被…侮辱【例句】Ahlam says the family wants to be comfortable, and she wants her children to live with dignity and not be humiliated. 在那边。家庭要舒适，Ahlam说，她盼望她的孩子生活得有庄严和不成辱
hijab /'haid??b/ n. 穆斯林妇女戴的面纱或头巾【例句】Advertisers, technology companies and fashion designers are gaining interest in the hijab.广告商、技能公司和古装设想师对这类头巾越来越感爱好。
depravity /d?'pr?v?t?/ n. 出错,腐臭;罪行,出错出错的行动【例句】It is a mark of depravity to make a mock of good advice and kind rebuke.嘲笑他人的忠言和蔼意斥责是出错的标志
disseminate /d?'sem?ne?t/ vt. 散布, 传播【例句】She helped disseminate information about the new artist.她辅佐宣传有关这位新艺术家的信息
harpy /'hɑ?p?/ n. 残暴贪心的人,鹰身女妖【例句】One of the most notable species is the harpy eagle.其中最引人注视标是哈比鹰
theocracy /θ?'?kr?s?/ n. 神权政治(国家)【例句】ISIS wants to create a theocracy based on its own interpretation of Islam.伊希斯想经过对伊斯兰教的本身晓得创建一个神权政体
pamphlet /?p?mflit/ n. 小册子【例句】Pamphlets were distributed among the audience.把小册子分发给听众。
谁想为肤浅的薪水工作?， for a pittance 一点点【例句】At those low wages, few will apply for the job. Who wants to work for a pittance?很少人会去申请阿谁低薪的工作
5. High-tech sexual slander has not replaced the old-fashioned sort, which remains rife wherever politicians and their propagandists can get away with it. In Russia, femaledissidents are dubbed sexual deviants in pro-Kremlin media. In the Philippines, President Rodrigo Duterte has joked about showing a pornographic video of a female opponent, which she says is a fake, to the pope.
6. Stamping out the problem altogether will be impossible. Anyone can make a deepfake sex video, or hire someone to do it, for a pittance, and then distribute it anonymously. Politicians will inevitably be targets. Laws against libel or invasion of privacy may deter some abuses, but they are not much use when the perpetrator is unknown. Reputable tech firms will no doubt try to remove the most egregious content, but there will always be other platforms, some of them hosted by regimes that actively sow disinformation in the West.
slander /'slɑ?nd?/ n. 离间, 毁谤vt. 辟谣诽谤【例句】He slandered me in front of the headmaster.他在校长眼前离间我
relentless /r?'lentl?s/ adj. 残暴的, 不包涵的, 无怜悯心的【例句】He was relentless in asking for compensation.他冷淡无情地请求补偿。
称小特朗普和几名俄罗斯人在特朗普大厦的会面为“叛国”和“不爱国”。， unpatriotic /??np?tr?'?t?k/ adj. 不爱国的,无爱国心的【例句】The book quotes Bannon describing a Trump Tower meeting between Donald Trump Jr. and a group of Russians as treasonous and unpatriotic.由于这本书援用了班农的描写
perpetrator /?p?:pi'treit?/ n. 做好事者;犯罪者;加害者;行凶者【例句】Usually the main witness is the same, is the perpetrator.凡是情况是，重要目击证人和犯罪人是同一小我
anonymous /?'n?n?m?s/ adj. 知名的, 不签字的【例句】It is an anonymous letter.这是一封匿名信。
massacre /'m?s?k?/ vt. 残杀;完全击败n. 大屠杀;惨败【例句】He is collecting evidence to massacre his opponents.他正在收集证据要完全击败他的对手
1. Adulterer, pervert, traitor, murderer. In France in 1793, no woman was more relentlessly slandered than Marie Antoinette. Political pamphlets spread baseless rumors of her depravity. Some drawings showed her with multiple lovers, male and female. Others portrayed her as aharpy, a notoriously disagreeable mythical beast that was half bird-of-prey, half woman. Suchmudslinging served a political purpose. The revolutionaries who had overthrown the monarchy wanted to tarnish the former queen’s reputation before they cut off her head.
egregious /?'gri?d??s/ adj. 极坏的;异乎平常的【例句】But pretty much everyone has come to believe that China is the most egregious offender.但几近每小我都意想到了中国事最为卑劣的攻击国。。 dissident /'d?s?d(?)nt/ n. 持异议者, 公然大唱反调者;持分歧政见者【例句】He begins to plot in various ways with dissident Boyars.他初步经过各类门路和守旧派贵族们停止谋害
intimidation /in,timi'dei??n/ n. 威吓,威吓;勒迫【例句】Most power struggles are resolved through ritual intimidation.这类气力上的比拼大多时辰是一种形式上的角逐。
然后再摆究竟， mudslinging /'m?dsl????/ n. 揭发隐私【例句】After I call the reporter a no-good mudslinger, I'll give him the facts, the ones he neglected to include in this story.首先我会称该记者是个无良离间者。那些他在报道中避而不谈的究竟
4. Similar tactics are used to deter women from running for public office. In the run-up to elections in Iraq last year, two female candidates were humiliated with explicit videos, which they say were faked. One pulled out of the race. The types of image used to degrade women vary from place to place. In Myanmar, where antipathy towards Muslims is widespread, detractors of Aung San Suu Kyi, the country’s de facto leader, circulated a photo manipulated to show her wearing a hijab. By contrast in Iran, an Islamist theocracy, a woman was disqualified from taking the seat she had won when a photo, which she claims is doctored, leaked showing her without one.