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GMAT 逻辑总纲
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导读:GMAT 逻辑总纲 第一部分:逻辑总纲第一章:做题步骤 一.先读问题(通过英文标志词读出题型)。 二.再读文章(随题型不同而发生变化)。三.再看选项。 1. 根据题型特点。 2. 排除法(通用排除法和无关词排除法) ...

incumbents enjoy an overwhelming advantage over their challengers in elections for the United

(D)  Technological improvements in maple-syrup harvesting have reduced production costs.

this same time period meat producer’s profits have risen steadily.

show that includes dramatic pictures of a fire or motor vehicle accident.

(B)    Many businesses report a significant decrease in absenteeism during periods when employees feel

the health department.

(B)  It would not be expensive to produce home appliances that are energy-efficient.

necessary  后的信息文中没有


(D)   Nonviolent crime, drug addiction, and divorce in Stavanger increased approximately as much as

been steadily increasing.

(A)   The suppression of fighting between related females serves to protect their common genetic

2)他因。C ® B ,

(A)    不大要被完整根治 t


(D)  Male tamarind monkeys do not display aggressive behavior in the wild.

BA,   BA

(1)     断桥型


(A)    Drivers in California as well as those in the rest of the United States have similar driving patterns.

(B)   Insect infestation and drought have stunted the growth of syrup-producing maple trees

(C)    Artificial seaweed of another material which had been previously developed by the inventor


2. 增强。

(E)       the majority of voters do not strongly wish for a different policy


scare and the water cold. D. galeata remains near the warm surface where food is abundant. Even though D. galeata grows and reprocess much faster, its population is often  outnumbered by D. hyaline.

(C)   There is a marked decrease in the number of complaints presented at college infirmaries during

environmentalists because the nets needlessly kill thousands of marine animals annually. However, environmentalists have recently discovered that an electrified cable buried beneath the periphery of swimming areas causes sharks to swim away while harming  neither humans nor marine life. Hence, by installing such cables, resort communities will be able to maintain tourism while satisfying environmentalists’ concerns.

Which of the following, if true, is the strongest counterargument to the argument above?



vacation time.

Which of the following, if true, would most strength the conclusion above?

(B)    Maravia is an oil-producing country and is able to refine an amount of gasoline sufficient for the needs of its pollution.

(E)   In Metropolis, conditions for handling and storing milk after pasteurization    are  seldom

of the fact that breeding occurred, tamarinds were viewed as monogamous.


likely to become ill.

blame B on/for A; B is responsible for A; credit A to B.


(2)      not削弱。

energy-efficient as those currently available.

2. The town of Stavanger, Norway, was quiet and peaceful until early 1960’s, when Stavanger became

2)他因。C ® B

(E)   Maple-syrup prices have risen many times in the past, though never before at the rate

same area as is the peregrine falcon.

weather forecasting services.

(B)      Psychologists have determined that the fear of retaliation tends to temper aggressiveness among


(D)  People can expect to be treated morally by others only if they esteem these others.

number of viewers who will be affected by events like those in the news stories.



presented in the survey?

英文标志词:assume, assumption, presuppose, additional premise, not true unless, depend on, rely on.

(C)  Engineering students should work harder than students in less demanding fields.

4. 评价。

2. The federal  government  expects hospitals to perform 10,000 organ transplants next   year.

(A)  A significant number of the organs used in transplants come from people who die in  car

(B)    In the United States many new restaurants that specialize in vegetarian meals have opened.

(A)   In the last congressional elections, incumbents met with a larger number of lobbyists than did




2. 证据表白:1 喝可乐的人中心肌衰退的比例跨越凡人。所。这说明:2 可乐致使心肌功效衰退

oil boom.

(C)    未获得 t 的药物治疗

(B)    并不晓得什么致使 t

猜测标志词: since A,B; A,therefore B; A,conclude B; A,clear B; A,obviously B; A,indicate/show B if A,then B; by A,in order to B; plan A,to B.

(D)      the majority of voters vote for certain politicians’ idiosyncratic positions on policy issues


(B)    In the last congressional elections, 98 percent of the incumbents in the House of Representatives


(E)  Large companies are in general more likely than small companies to diversity the markets products.

on a more massive scale, they must alter more complex operations and spend much more money to

Which of the following, if true, would help resolve the apparent paradox presented above?


not + weaken

3. The country of Maravia has severe air pollution, 80 percent of which is caused by the exhaust fumes


3. 削弱

(D)   Viewers of television news show tend to overestimate the number of fires and motor vehicle

3. Since 1945 there have been numerous international confrontations as tense as those that precipitated


读文章方式:首先分析黑体字部分是 evidence 还是 conclusion,然后经过转折词判定 evidence

know because fewer and fewer of my students regularly do the work they are assigned.” The conclusion drawn above depends on which of the following assumptions?

5. Statistics over four consecutive years showed that four percent more automobile accidents happened

(D)  The amount of recent sand buildup on that section of coast is the same as the amount of recent

Which of the following, if true, would most weaken the argument above?

The argument above requires which of the following assumption?

Which of the following, if true, would most strongly indicate that the hypothesis described in the last


(D)   The cost of energy to the consumer world rise with increase in the energy efficiency of home

violent crime and vandalism did.


(C)   Although artificial-hip implants increase the risk of cancer after about 45 year of use, a few of


公共popular beliefs and valuesMost people believe/agree

news reporters available for assignment.


1. In the 1960’s long-term studies of primate behavior often used as subjects tamaris, small monkeys

(A)  Engineering students are working less because, in a booming market they are spending more and


their challengers did not pose a serious threat to their chances for reelection.

B.       1 support conclusion and 2 support 1.

car and motorcycle accidents has been dropping steadily over the past decade. The argument above makes which of the following assumptions?

2B 存在。

D. galeata.

(A)  In some of the area where red tides occur, neither clams nor sea otters are indigenous species.

(C)       the public is overly anxious about environmental deterioration


(D)    In other species of mammals, some members of the species are genetically better equipped to withstand a disease or event that destroys other members of the species.

show that these time changes adversely affect the alertness of California drivers.

eventually be reduced to about ten percent.



vicinity in need of an organ for a transplant.


(B)  Norwegian sociologists expressed grave concern about the increase in violent crime and vandalism in Stavanger.


(E)  People who have self-respect seldom treat morally those esteem.

species repopulated itself through extensive inbreeding, it now exhibits a genetic uniformity that is

(B)   Did some of the men surveyed gain less than 18 pounds during the time they were married?



英 文 标 志 词 : explain, reason, account for, provide a rationale for, reconcile the discrepancy/paradox.


almost unparalleled in other species of mammals, and thus it is in far greater danger of becoming

(D)   There is a marked increase in the number of illness treated at college infirmaries around  the time of


the other, and rejecting only products found flawed by both.  The argument above requires which of the following assumption?

(C)  Maple syrup is produced in rural areas that suffer from high unemployment.

(E)     Meat producers have invested large amount of money on advertising in order to win  back consumers who have decreased their meat consumption.

支持 conclusion3

1、是支持中心结论 2(mid conclusion)evidence2、是 mid conclusion


argument=evidence+conclusion)4、是经过指出 AàB 自己的毛病(类似于 flaw) 1à2



② 点

4. The excessive number of safety regulations that the federal government has placed on industry poses

(C)   The number of fires and motor vehicle accidents greatly increases after each television news


2. 诠释抵牾

(B)  not as popular with pilots as ultralight aircraft


increase the risk of cancer in recipients after about 45 years of use. Though these   implants



1. 归纳

本质为因果结构, 即结论是条件的诠释。,概况上是条件结论结构,

第三种文章的标志词: 与第一种文章类似






2.       增强

after pasteurization is unreasonable. Under optimal conditions, pasteurized milk kept at   40


pressured by management.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the deterrent theory mentioned above?

infrequent deliveries.

(A)    A premise of the argument

(C)  Incumbent members of Congress are frequently critical of the amount of attention given to them

(E)     D. galeata produces twice as many offspring per individual in any period of time does D. hyalina.

③ 分类。

appliances that are twice as energy-efficient as those currently available are produced, this figure will

2. Experienced pilots often have more trouble than novice pilots in learning to fly the newly developed

(D)  more fuel-efficient than ultralight aircraft


(E)  Will the reported gains be maintained over the lifetimes of the persons surveyed?

英文标志词:boldface, play roles.


On the basis

doubtful that this many donor organs will be available, since the number of fatalities resulting from

one or

(B)    Predators of zooplankton, such as white-fish and perch, live and feed near the surface of the lake during the day.


(E)     Any way of detecting flaws, other than by using either system X or system Y, requires complete disassembly of the products.


to live more than an additional 30 years.

the cancers they induce are not fatal.

1. The population of elephant seals, reduced by hunting to perhaps a few dozen animals early in this


(D)   Drivers in New Jersey are more safety conscious than are drivers in other parts of the country.


3. 由于他人的妻子都有别墅

Given the information in the passage above, which of the following is most likely the reason that


(A)  The time television news reporters spend researching news stories is directly related to the

craft, seem not to respect the wind as much as they should.

3.  彗星(comet)进入 A 星球大气层前的颗粒巨细没有被观察到。但人们可以按照 1comet

Which of the following, if true during the last three years, contributes most to a resolution of

twice as


Which of the following, if true, best supports the claim above?

(C)  Home-appliance manufacturers now have the technology to produce appliances that are

not feed on the clams in that area.

1)    断桥型。AB

all-time low in the early 1970’s. The decline was attributed by scientists to the widespread use of the



extinct than are most other species.

century, has soared under federal protection during the last few decades. However, because the

Which of the following, if it occurred between the early 1960’s and now, gives the strongest support

caused less-abundant syrup harvests.

(B)    The operations of small companies frequently rely on the same technologies as the operations of

Stavanger have greatly increased. Clearly, these social problems are among the results of Stavanger’s

stories that include dramatic pictures such as fires and motor vehicle accidents than they do

because of governmental perversity but because elected officials believe that         .

(D)    Ninety percent of the population of Maravia is very prosperous and has a substantial amount of disposable income.

(B)   Whether or not students do the work they are assigned is a good indication of how lazy they are.

Second World War.

5. 句子感化

(D)    A reiteration of the conclusion for the sake of emphasis

if/when/as/whenever/whichever/whoever 后的信息文中没有



(B)  In the time since the use of DDT was banned in 1972, the population of peregrine falcons

1.    公共元素直推法


A,obviously B; if A,then B; by A,in order to B; plan A,to B.


(E) there are no unnecessary surgical operations performed in Canada.


(B)  Adult male tamarinds contribute to the care of tamarind infants.

(E)  The way the tamarinds were kept in cages did not affect their mating behavior.

more serious hardships for big businesses than for small ones. Since large companies do everything

the Second World War, and yet no large-scale conflict has resulted. To explain this, some argue that


A, unless B.                               B A,   A B

1New Jersey has one of the lowest motor vehicle fatality rates in the country, and it is one of the few


the basis of the results obtained in controlled experiments.

1. Artificial seaweed made of plastic has been placed on a section of coast in order to reverse beach

pollution in Maravia.

1.       假定。

(B)  The level of sophistication of the technology used in storm-detecting radar system can be determined from the reliability of the system.

once was.

not replaced by more energy-efficient models.

(B)   Most states are skeptical that annual automobile safety inspections can reduce fatality rates.

2. 解除法通用解除法和无关词解除法



these others morally.


. Which of the following best completes the passage below?

The statement concerning what the environmentalists recently discovered plays which of the following roles in the argument?

But it is


第三种文章的标志词: 与第一种文章类似, 即结论是条件的诠释


2.       增强。


Which of the following conclusions can be properly drawn from the statements above?

and because they enjoy such perquisites as free mail privileges and generous travel allowances,


(D)  Computer hardware is now a key component of the new storm-detecting radar systems used by

needed during a

The explanation given above rests on an assumption that




(E)    The percentage of energy consumed by home appliances will increase if existing appliances are


(A)    The reliability of storm-detecting radar systems is determined by the frequency of breakdowns.

offshore oil exploration.

(D)    Since artificial-hip implants are not very common, banning them would cause little hardship.

1. 诠释功效

blame A on/for B; B is responsible for A; credit A to B.

(E)  Most people report that being in a hospital or an infirmary is a stressful situation.

(E)     Other species of mammals have retained habits of caution and alertness because they have not been protected as endangered species.


Norway’s center for offshore oil exploration. Between then and now, violent crime and vandalism in

2.To be mentally healthy, people must have self-respect. People can maintain self-respect only by

(D)   Large companies typically have more of their profits invested in other business than do small

how extensively it is discussed on television news shows. Television news shows report more

Which of the following, if true, would most seriously weaken the conclusion drawn above?

(C)    Maravia has had an excellent public transportation system for many years.

(A)   The government already requires maple-syrup harvesters to submit their facilities to licensing by

(B)   It is easier for crimes such as bookkeeping fraud to go unprosecuted than it is crimes such as

product flaws but they each also erroneously reject three percent of flawless products. Since

adopt similar safety inspection procedures.

2. Recent surveys show that many people who seek media help are under a great deal of stress.

If the statements above are true, it can be properly concluded that which of the following is also true?

(B)    Other species of mammals have increased their knowledge of dangers though the experience of generation after generation of animals.

more artificial seaweed would need to be put in place every four years.

¾¾¾¾® B

4. “On the whole,” Ms. Dennis remarked, “engineering students are lazier now that they used to be. I


以,由于 4 喝可乐的人常常在喝之前已经是心力衰竭者3            可乐欠好

affected by DDT in their habitats.


五、文章难猜 A


failed to add sand to coastline in past trials.

fatality rate.


4. 填空

by the news media.


A is necessary to B.                BA A depend/draw/base on B.                                                    AB


2.    诠释抵牾


of cars. In order to reduce the number of cars on the road, the government is raising taxes on the cost




3.       削弱。

(C)     Four years is not a sufficiently long period of time over which to judge the phenomenon described.


英文标志词:weaken, cast doubt, argue against, damage, counter, challenge, refute, jeopardize, undermine, drawback, flaw, criticism, reasoning error, weakness.

(D)    Whichever system performs the second inspection needs to inspect only products not rejected by the first system.

(E)     A time change at any other time of year would not produce a similar increase in accident

(E)   Although very small amounts of the toxin produced during a red tide are not harmful, large doses

assumption. Which of the following could have served as that assumption?





(B)  The presence of sea otters in a given area has a significant effect on which other marine organisms are to be found in that areas.

(A)  Many businesses that provide health insurance for their employees also provide seminars on stress


(A)  Most consumers keep milk no more than three days after purchase.

(B)    The conclusion of a key term in the argument





enough to replace the amount lost during storms on that section of coast in the last twenty years.

3. Inspection system X and inspection system Y, though based on different principles, each detect all

reached an


seats often compensates for the perquisites enjoyed by incumbent members of Congress.


¾¾¾¾® B

1. 假定。

states  that require extensive annual automobile safety  inspections. Therefore, all   states

④ 极端。most, any, cannot


governmental price regulations are necessary to control rising prices.


(C)  The social system of tamarinds requires monogamous pairing.

(B)   The number of car and motorcycle accidents will increase significantly during the next

(D)   Starling, house sparrows, and blue jays-birds the peregrine falcon prey on—were not adversely

题目中:explanation, interpretation, hypothesis.




(A)patients in the United States do not have a greater need for surgery than do patients in Canada.

(A)    The three percent of flawless products that system X rejects are not all the same products, piece for piece, that system Y erroneously rejects.

male-female pairs, because otherwise,  serious fights  erupted between  unrelated  females.



2.    无关词解除法。

sentence of the passage of the passage is not correct?


(A)    The government of Maravia is in the process of building a significant number of roadways.

those states.

given year have been very unreliable.


fear of enormous destruction such as the Second War produced has had a dramatic deterrent effect.


States Congress.

radar system must be less sophisticated than the radar technology used in the 1957 system. The conclusion drawn above depends on which of the following questionable assumptions?


(E)  A smaller number of people die on the roads in New Jersey than in most other states.

猜测猜测缘由¬¾¾¾ B

Only if A, then B.                    BA Must by A, in order to B.    BA If only A, then B.          AB

5. A test of the National Weather Service’s stormdetecting radar systems found that the 1957 system is

(B)  Because artificial seaweed would be buried eventually by additional sand deposits on the coast,

Which of the following, if true, gives the strongest support to the scientists claim?

GMAT 逻辑总结

(A)  The people of Stavanger rarely regret that their town was chosen to be Norway’s   center


(D)    In  the  past  the  federal  government’s  estimates  of  the  number  of  organ transplants

human beings.


following the switch back to standard time than occurred the week before each event. These statistics


Field studies were not used because they were costly and difficult. Tamarinds were kept caged in


BA,   BA

(D)  If the clams in a given areas are contaminated with toxin, sea otters move to other areas in search


meet government requirements.


(E)   Other birds of prey, such as the osprey, the bald cage, and the brown pclican, are found  in the

3. For the United Stats meat industry, there is good news and bad news. The bad news in that over the

(C)  No more than 10,000 people will be in need of organ transplants during the next year.

eight days, milk prices would drop, but product quality would be unaffected.


The passage implies that the heavier aircraft mentioned above are


2. 归纳(假定


以不能说明可乐致使心功效衰退。而且 5 可乐中含有多量微量元素,所以 6 喝可乐好



(D)    不采用步调避省得 t

(A)    The number of species of zooplankton living at the lakes is twice that of species living at the surface.

Not A, unless B.                       AB

“Government” does not exist as an independent entity defining policy. Instead there exists a group of

1.  马克思说:“这本书只从资产阶级的角度去斟酌题目,是不正确的。”题目:从文中能推出马克思以为这本书应从什么角度斟酌题目


ultralight airplanes. Being accustomed to heavier aircraft, experienced pilots, when flying ultralight

continually earning the respect of others they esteem. They can earn this respect only by

第二种文章的标志词: 文中:A is due to B; A is attribute to B; A is result of B;

(C)  not as safe as ultralight aircraft

(D)    D. galeata clusters under vegetation during the hottest part of the day to avoid the sun’s rays.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument above?


(E)   Although the benefits of artificial-hip implant surgery have remained substantially the same over

(A)    Most states tend to impose few rules and regulations on the automobile drivers operating within

. According to a recent survey, marriage is fattening. Cited as evidence is the survey’s finding that the


motorcycle accidents.


pesticide DDT in rural areas.

(C)   How much weight is gained or lost in 13 years by single people of comparable age to those

(E)    The usual selection of news stories for television news show is determined by the number of

(C)    Metropolis’ grocery-store owners would prefer small, frequent deliveries of milk to larger,

(E)   For any given fatality resulting from a car or motorcycle accident, there is a hospital in


2. During the day in Lake Constance, the zoo-plankton D. hyalina departs for the depths where food is


1. Scientists now believe that artificial-hip implants, previously thought to be safe, may actually

(C)  The Second World War was far less distractive than most people generally believe.


3.       评价。

1.       削弱。

¾¾¾¾® B

(A)  Artificial-hip implant surgery can cause severe complications, such as infection, chronic fever, and bone degeneration, and these complications can themselves be crippling or even fatal.

(B)  People who are mentally healthy will have treated morally those they esteem.

题目:The boldface in the argument above plays which of the following roles?

sulfaComet 颗粒必须有充足的巨细不被烧光而穿过大气层。才华照顾上 sulfa

4. 染上 t 这类病的人一次又一次反复爆发。这就证实了 t 这类病从未被根治过。假定?(关于这类人

1. 按照题型特点

(A)仆从主阶级 (B)田主阶级 (C)工人阶级 (D)无产阶级 (E)资产阶级之外的阶级

(E)    并未反复沾染上 t

(A)    People have been eating less meat because they are more health conscious than in the past.

1. Because incumbent members of Congress are given a great deal of attention by the news media

4.       评价。



英文标志词:▁▁和 complete the sentence

The conclusion in the argument above is based on which of the following assumptions?


to pay

GMAT 逻辑总纲 


large companies.

who were seeking reelection won.

(C)    In order to make the most of scare food resources, D. hyaline matures more slowly  than

1.    诠释功效。

3. 痴人型思维。

2.    与文章前面所给信息相分歧

(E)   Many of the international confrontations that have occurred since 1945 have involved countries

average woman gains 23 pounds and the average man gains 18 pounds during 13 years of marriage.




(C)    In other species of mammals, hunters can readily distinguish between males and females or between young animals and adults.

¬¾¾¾ B

(D) general practitioners in the United States do not as a rule examine a patient who is a candidate for surgery before sending the patient to a surgeon.



(A)  People who are mentally healthy will be treated morally by others.

other species of mammals are less likely than elephant seals to become extinct?

Fahrenheit remains unspoiled for at least 14 days. If Metropolis current limitation were changed to



7 请喝可乐吧!

limitation on the sale of milk to 8 days.



close to

(A)  Why was the period of time studied in the survey 13 years, rather than 12 or 14?

增强题有 same, equal, asas, not different 表示类似的词,


一、假定,削弱有 different 表示差此外词

(E)  easier to handle in wind than ultralight aircraft

3. Most television viewers estimate how frequently a particular type of accident or crime occurs by


(1)      桥梁型

(B)       environmental concerns are being accommodated as well as public funds permit

(D)     The support that political station action committees provide to challengers for congressional

. The price of maple syrup has jumped from 22 dollars a gallon three years ago to 40 dollars a gallon




accidents that occur relative to the number of crimes of bookkeeping fraud.

(E)  Most of the significant advances in stormdetecting technology were made in the 1950s.


that participated in the Second World War.

C ® A

(D)  Were the woman surveyed as active as the men surveyed, at the time survey was made?

(B)     The observed increases in accident rates are due almost entirely to an increase in the number of minor accidents.


The answer to which of the following questions would be most relevant in evaluating the reasoning

6Although the ratio of physicians to total population is about the same in the United State and Canada, the United States has 33 percent more surgeons per capita. Clearly, this is the reason people in the United States undergo 40 percent more operations per capita than do Canadians.

(E)     In Maravia, cars that emit relatively low levels of pollutions cost 10 percent less to operate, on average, than do cars that emit high levels of pollutions.

(C)   When seawater in an area unaffected by red tide is artificially dyed brownish red, sea otters do

(C)    The reliability of storm-detecting radar systems is determined by their accuracy in predicting

erosion. The inventor of the seaweed has concluded that the recent buildup of sand on that section of

(D)    Countries that are unable to produce enough meat for their populations have become a new and lucrative market for United States meat producers.


(C)    In their price range, system as X and Y are the least error-prone inspection systems on the market.

(A)      environmentalists would be extremely difficult to satisfy with any policy, however environmentally sound

rejections are very costly, monkey will be saved by installing both systems, instead of either

(E)  The amount of recent sand buildup on that section of coast, although considerable, is not

(E)   Of all incumbent senators surveyed before the last congressional elections, 78 percent said that


research also shows that stress can adversely affect an individual’s immune system, which is responsible for combating many infections. Thus when a person is under stress, he or she is

(A)  Small companies are less likely than large companies to have the capital reserve for improvements.





(A)   After the First World War, the fear of great future destruction was as intense as it was after the

If A, then B.                              AB

A.      Both 1 and 2 support the conclusion.

4, 5 均支持 conclusion6 的建立。其职位一般在文章的最初。,称作 suggestion

弱,而 5 是经过 CàB 2à3 停止削弱的。7 和本文的逻辑推导无关

(A)  DDT was not generally in use in areas devoted to heavy industry.

of buying and running a car by 20 percent. This tax increase, therefore will significantly reduce air


① 工具。

2. Twenty percent of all energy consumed in the United States is consumed by home appliances. If



1. The use of nets at beach resorts to protect swimming areas from sharks has been criticized by

(E)     A statement of the position that is being argued against

Which of the following, if true, casts the most doubt on the conclusion drawn above?

(A)    Other species of mammals have large populations, so the loss of a few members of the species is not significant.


首先分析黑体字部分是 evidence  还是 conclusion,然后经过转折词判定 evidence 



of food.

weather patterns.

(C)  Peregrine falcons, like other birds of prey, abandon eggs that fallen out of the nest,  even

2. Metropolis regulation limiting to four days the period during which milk can be sold to consumers


(1)      桥梁型

(B) the population of the United States is not larger than that of Canada. (C)United States patients sometimes travel to Canada for certain kinds of surgery.


(B)  Almost all artificial-hip implant recipients receive their implants at an age when they are unlikely


conclusion 间的关系。

(B)  A recent survey showed that 20 percent of Metropolis consumers favored extending the current



The argument above is based on which of the following assumptions?


C ® A

(2)     他因

if the

(A)  harder to land than ultralight aircraft

(C)  People who are mentally healthy must have self-respect in other to be treated morally by others.


2. The presence of microorganisms that produce a toxin cause sweater to turn brownish red, phenomenon known as a red ride. Sea otters do not feed in areas where clams, their main source of food, have become contaminated with this toxin. According to a proposed explanation of the otter’s behavior, the otters sample the clams in a potential feeding area and can taste any toxin in them.

.  第一种文章条件结论结构



the past decade, the price of the surgery has risen considerably.

eggs remain intact.


(C)    Annual automobile safety inspections contribute significantly to holding down New Jersey’s

1. The population of peregrine falcons declined rapidly during the 1950’s and 1960’s  and

英文标志词:support, strengthen, conclusion can be drawn if it were true that.

.  第二种文章因果结构

for these improvements. Therefore, they should be banned.

more time investigating different job opportunities.

(读懂文章的推导进程,对文章的猜测偏向 B 停止评价),认可究竟 A





conclusion 间的关系。

第一种文章的标志词: 文中:since A,B; A,therefore B; A,conclude B; A,clear B;


第二种文章的标志词: 文中:A is due to B; A is attribute to B; A is result of B;



ten times more reliable than the new computerized system. Therefore the technology used in the new

improve the quality of recipient’s lives, the increased risk of cancer is an unacceptable  price

(B)    It is less costly to accept a flawed product than to reject a flawless one.

(A)   The amount of recent sand buildup on that section of coast was less than had been predicted on

英文标志词:evaluate, appraisal.

can be fatal to animals the size of sea otters.

in their own reelection. Therefore, if public policy is hostile to, say, environmental concerns,  it is not

(D)   Fear of repeating the levels of destruction that the Second World War produced is as pervasive

2A 星球云层含有多量

含有硫磺(sulfa)来猜测颗粒巨细。Comet 颗粒自己一定是不含 sulfa


(C)    A clarification of a key term in the argument

democratically elected pragmatists sensitive to the electorate, who establish policies that will result

today as it was forty years ago.

coast proves that the artificial seaweed reverses beach erosion.

威望authorityScientist, Leader believe/agree






Which of the following, if true, world most seriously weaken the inventor’s conclusion?

sand buildup on otherwise very similar sections of coast without artificial seaweed.

today. It can be concluded that maple-syrup harvesters have been artificially inflating prices and that

common stories that have little visual drama such as bookkeeping fraud.

(C)    Competition from the growing fish industry has forced meat producers to sell meat at bargain prices in an attempt to attract more consumers.

The view taken by the researchers concerning the monogamy of tamarinds deepened on a questionable

¾¾¾¾® B


(D)    There are no other factors such as school vacations or holiday celebrations that cause accident rates to rise during these weeks.

that were thought ideal because they require only small cages, breed frequently, and grow quickly.

(E)    The oil boom necessitated the building of wider roads for the increased traffic in Stavanger.

in California during the week following the switch to daylight saving time and during the week

实在能否决1à 2à3 的论证(argument,,它们否决2 3

conclusion4 5 也是evidence


(C)  Violent crime and vandalism have remained low in Norwegian that had no oil boom.


to the argument above?

题目中:explanation, interpretation, hypothesis.

(A)    Home-appliance usage would not increase along with the energy efficiency of the appliances.

on more


(2)      B 存在。



英文标志词:conclusion; inferred; implied; supported; if above true, then it is also true. 读文章方式:不要关心文章的推导进程

apparent discrepancy above?

(D)  Milk kept longer than 14 days after pasteurization generally presents no medical dangers

(D)  Ms. Dennis’ students are doing less work because Ms. Dennis is not as effective a teacher as she

last three years people in the United States have been eating less meat. The good news is that during







A require B.                              AB

(E)  Laziness is something most people do not outgrow.

(C)  Safety regulation codes are uniform, established without reference to size of company.


3. 诠释

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