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GMAT 逻辑总纲
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(B) Other species of mammals have increased their knowledge of dangersthough the experience of generation after generation of animals.

BGMAT 逻辑总纲 第一部分:逻辑总纲第一章:做题步骤 一.先读问题(通过英文标志词读出题型)。 二.再读文章(随题型不同而发生变化)。三.再看选项。 1. 根据题型特点。 2. 排除法(通用排除法和无关词排除法) ...

(D)A reiteration of theconclusion for the sake of emphasis

causedless-abundant syrup harvests.

3. The country of Maravia hassevere air pollution, 80 percent of which is caused by the exhaust fumes(D)In the past the federalgovernment’s estimates ofthe number of organ transplants

of buying and running a car by 20 percent. This taxincrease, therefore will significantly reduce air

the Second World War, and yet no large-scale conflicthas resulted. To explain this, some argue that

6Although the ratio ofphysicians to total population is about the same in the United State andCanada, the United States has 33 percent more surgeons per capita. Clearly,this is the reason people in the United States undergo 40 percent moreoperations per capita than do Canadians.2. Metropolisregulation limiting to four days the period during which milk can be sold toconsumers

第四章:猜题原则

一、假定,增强题有 same, equal, asas, not different 表示类似的词,削弱有 different 表示差此外词

likely to becomeill.
recently

2B 存在。而且 5 可乐中含有多量微量元素,所以 6 喝可乐好(不要关心文章的推导进程,只要晓得文章说了什么即可,留心文章前后经过类似词的毗连)(B)In thelast congressional elections, 98 percent of the incumbents in the House of Representatives

(B)并不晓得什么致使 tassumption. Which of the following could have served as thatassumption。degrees

(B) In the United States many new restaurants that specialize in vegetarianmeals have opened.

ten times more reliable than the new computerized system. Therefore the technology used inthe new

if/when/as/whenever/whichever/whoever后的信息文中没有。

第一种文章条件结论结构第二种文章因果结构challengers.more

(B)Becauseartificial seaweed would be buriedeventually by additional sand deposits on thecoast,

当增强来做。题目:The boldface in the argument above playswhich of the following roles。

(C)Violent crime andvandalism have remained low in Norwegian that had no oil boom.meet government requirements.(C)Metropolis’grocery-store owners would prefer small,frequent deliveries of milk to larger,

Which of thefollowing, if true, best supports the claim above。infrequent deliveries.

(D)Computerhardware is now a key component of the new storm-detecting radar systems used bynumber ofviewers who will be affected by events like those in the news stories.vacation time.coast proves that the artificial seaweed reverses beach erosion.(E)Manyof the international confrontations that have occurred since 1945 have involved countries

(A)In thelast congressional elections, incumbents met with a larger number of lobbyiststhan didnot feed on the clams in that area.on more

(B) Maravia is an oil-producingcountry and is able to refine an amount of gasoline sufficient for the needs ofits pollution.读文章方式:不要关心文章的推导进程,只需从文中拎出所要诠释的工具说它对即可,用常

(C)A clarification of a key term in the argument

Given the information in the passage above, which of thefollowing is most likely the reason that

公共popular beliefs and valuesMost peoplebelieve/agree留心侧重点sentence of the passage of the passage is not correct。

The view taken by the researchers concerning themonogamy of tamarinds deepened on a questionable五、文章难猜 AEXCEPT E(C)Safety regulationcodes are uniform,established without referenceto size of company.(B)Insect infestation and droughthave stunted the growth of syrup-producing maple trees

3. 由于他人的妻子都有别墅, 所以我也该当有别墅。

(B) Norwegian sociologists expressed grave concernabout the increasein violent crime andvandalism in Stavanger.

not + weaken

(B)not as popular with pilots as ultralight aircraftaccidents that occur relative to the number of crimes of bookkeepingfraud.

猜测¬¾¾¾

afterpasteurization is unreasonable. Under optimal conditions, pasteurized milk keptat 40

第二种文章的标志词: 文中:A is due to B; Ais attribute to B; A is result of B;

(A) Many businesses that provide healthinsurance for their employees alsoprovide seminars on stress

for theseimprovements. Therefore, they should be banned.




(A)Most states tend to impose few rules and regulations on theautomobile drivers operating within

¾¾¾¾® B

on a more massive scale, they must alter more complexoperations and spend much more money to

. According to a recentsurvey, marriage is fattening. Cited as evidence is the survey’s finding thattheBut it is

1. In the 1960’s long-termstudies of primate behavior often used as subjects tamaris, small monkeys
and

governmental price regulations are necessary to control risingprices.(D)Fearof repeating the levels of destruction that the Second World War produced is as pervasive

consumed.

almost unparalleled in other species of mammals, andthus it is in far greater danger of becoming

(C)No more than 10,000people will be in need of organ transplantsduring the next year.pesticide DDT in rural areas.(C)The Second World Warwas far less distractive thanmost people generally believe.

(A) The number of species ofzooplankton living at the lakes istwice that of species living at the surface.

(D)more fuel-efficient than ultralight aircraft

more serious hardships for big businesses than for smallones. Since large companies do everything

The passageimplies that the heavier aircraft mentioned above are(E)Laziness is somethingmost people do not outgrow.

eggs remainintact.

3. 诠释2. The federal government expects hospitals to perform10,000 organ transplants next year.7 请喝可乐吧。those states.桥梁型。

and because they enjoy such perquisites as free mailprivileges and generous travel allowances,

(C) In other species of mammals, hunterscan readily distinguish between males and femalesor between young animals and adults.

C ® A(D)Milk kept longer than 14 days after pasteurization generally presents no medical dangers答案是:A.(D)Male tamarind monkeys do not display aggressive behaviorin the wild.

(E)Of all incumbent senators surveyed before the last congressional elections, 78 percent said that¾¾¾¾® B

If the statements above are true, it can be properlyconcluded that which of the following is also true。

motorcycleaccidents.

(E) In Maravia, cars that emitrelatively low levels of pollutions cost 10 percent less to operate, on average, than do cars that emit high levelsof pollutions.

1. 依照题型特点。

D. galeata.

century, has soared under federal protection during thelast few decades. However, because the

craft, seem not to respect the wind as much as they should.


The argumentabove is based on which of the following assumptions。

. The price of maple syrup hasjumped from 22 dollars a gallon three years ago to 40 dollars a gallon

第三章:消除法


猜测标志词: since A,B;A,therefore B; A,conclude B; A,clear B; A,obviously B; A,indicate/show B ifA,then B; by A,in order to B; plan A,to B.on


1断桥型。 BA, BA

conclusion4 5 也是evidence,它们否决2 3,实在能否决1à 2à3 的论证(argument,

假定(肯定桥梁)
BA,BA

(C)Engineering studentsshould work harder than students inless demanding fields.4. The excessivenumber of safety regulations that the federal government has placed on industryposes

5. 句子感导On the basis(B)Arecent survey showed that 20 percent of Metropolis consumers favored extending the current

that were thought ideal because they require only smallcages, breed frequently, and grow quickly.

(A) The time television news reporters spend researching newsstories is directly related to theA究竟

The answer to which of the following questions would bemost relevant in evaluating the reasoningappliances.

当增强来做。

(A) Small companies are less likely than large companiesto have the capital reservefor improvements.

(B) The observed increases inaccident rates are due almostentirely to an increase in the number of minoraccidents.

1. 马克思说:“这本书只从资产阶级的角度去斟酌题目,是不正确的。

(D)Thecost of energy to the consumer world rise with increase in the energyefficiency of home

④ 极端。 BA

(1) 断桥型。
if the

(D) D.galeata clustersunder vegetation during the hottest partof the day to avoid the sun’s rays.(E)In Metropolis,conditions for handling and storing milk after pasteurization areseldom

seats often compensates for the perquisites enjoyed byincumbent members of Congress.

四.填空。the health department.

(A) environmentalists would beextremely difficult to satisfy with any policy,however environmentally sound(B)Whetheror not students do the work they are assigned is a good indication of how lazythey are.(B)Adult male tamarinds contribute to the care of tamarindinfants.

argument=evidence+conclusion)4、是经过指出 AàB 自己的弊端(类似于 flaw) 1à2

democratically elected pragmatists sensitive to theelectorate, who establish policies that will result

一.先读题目(经过英文标志词读出题型eventually be reduced to about ten percent.

(A) The three percent offlawless products that system Xrejects are not all the same products, piece for piece, that system Y erroneously rejects.

in California during the week following the switch todaylight saving time and during the weekshow that includes dramatic pictures of a fire or motor vehicleaccident.(D)the majority of voters vote for certain politicians’idiosyncratic positions on policy issues

3. For the United Stats meatindustry, there is good news and bad news. The bad news in that over the

(C) There is a marked decrease in the number ofcomplaints presented at college infirmaries duringonce was.

(1) 桥梁型。

A require B. AB

(D)People can expect to be treated morally by others only if they esteem these others.Second WorldWar.

(A)A premise of the argument


2.增强。

(A)Thereliability of storm-detecting radarsystems is determined by the frequency of breakdowns.

1.一切的人都去了。(C)Althoughartificial-hip implants increase the risk of cancer after about 45 year of use,a few of

adopt similarsafety inspection procedures.

(B) Thepresence of sea otters in a given area has a significant effect on whichother marine organisms are to be found in that areas.the cancers they induce are not fatal.(E)Thepercentage of energy consumed by home appliances will increase if existingappliances are

2. 增强。can be fatal to animals the size of sea otters.

(D)不采用步伐避省得 tAB,

sulfa

(C)the publicis overly anxiousabout environmental deterioration

3.评价。their challengers did not pose a serious threat to their chances forreelection.

弱,而 5 是经过CàB 2à3 竣事削弱的。(大要读懂文章即可)(D)Werethe woman surveyed as active as the men surveyed, at the time survey was made。

(C)Maravia has had an excellent publictransportation system for many years.


1.对结论感导不明白CEO)。1.削弱。ABBA
the

Which of thefollowing conclusions can be properly drawn from the statements above。颗粒上

(D)Ms. Dennis’students are doing less work because Ms. Dennis is not as effective a teacheras shearson.

Norway’s center for offshore oil exploration. Betweenthen and now, violent crime and vandalism in

威望authorityScientist,Leaderbelieve/agree

improve thequality of recipient’s lives, the increased risk of cancer is anunacceptable price(D)Nonviolentcrime, drug addiction, and divorce in Stavangerincreased approximately as much assurveyed。(A)Home-applianceusage would not increase along with the energy efficiency of the appliances.

(A)harder to land thanultralight aircraft

(B)People who are mentallyhealthy will havetreated morally those they esteem.

(A)仆从主阶级 (B)田主阶级 (C)工人阶级 (D)无产阶级 (E)资产阶级之外的阶级human beings.

Which of thefollowing, if true, is the strongest counterargument to the argument above。

2.To be mentally healthy,people must have self-respect. People can maintain self-respect only by(E)The way the tamarinds were kept in cages did not affecttheir mating behavior.yet

ultralight airplanes. Being accustomed to heavieraircraft, experienced pilots, when flying ultralight

Stavanger have greatly increased. Clearly, these socialproblems are among the results of Stavanger’s

research also shows that stress can adversely affect an individual’simmune system, which is responsible for combating many infections. Thus when aperson is under stress, he or she is

1. 诠释功效。假定。

猜测猜测缘由¬¾¾¾ B

2. 增强。(E)People who have self-respect seldomtreat morally those esteem.

英文标志词:support, strengthen,conclusion can be drawn if it were true that.

(B) Thelevel of sophistication of the technology used in storm-detecting radar system can bedetermined from the reliability of the system.

以,3可乐欠好。(关于这类人一、通用消除法。公共信息:人(E)the majority of votersdo not strongly wish for a differentpolicy

(E) The usual selection ofnews stories for television news show is determined by the number of

2. During the day in LakeConstance, the zoo-plankton D. hyalina departs for the depths where food is

(C)When seawater in an area unaffected by red tideis artificially dyed brownish red, sea ottersdo

management.

(A) People have been eating less meat because theyare more health conscious than in the past.

(E)The amount of recentsand buildup on that section of coast, althoughconsiderable, is notlimitation on the sale of milk to 8 days.

species repopulated itself through extensive inbreeding,it now exhibits a genetic uniformity that is

(D)Sinceartificial-hip implants are not very common, banning them would cause littlehardship.

第二节:归纳

读文章方式:读懂文章的推导进程。AB

(D)Driversin New Jersey are more safety conscious than are drivers in otherparts of the country.一.归纳。这说明:2 可乐致使心肌功效衰退

4. 填空

(C)Howmuch weight is gained or lost in 13 years bysingle people of comparable age to those

A究竟

2. Thepresence of microorganisms that produce a toxin cause sweater to turn brownishred, phenomenon known as a red ride. Sea otters do not feed in areas whereclams, their main source of food, have become contaminated with this toxin.According to a proposed explanation of the otter’s behavior, the otters samplethe clams in a potential feeding area and can taste any toxin in them.GMAT 逻辑总结year.

(A)Artificial-hipimplant surgery can cause severe complications,such as infection, chronic fever, andbone degeneration, and these complications can themselves be crippling or even fatal.

(A) Drivers in California aswell as those in the rest of the UnitedStates have similar driving patterns.

¾¾¾¾® B

Fahrenheit remains unspoiled for at least 14 days. IfMetropolis current limitation were changed to

第三种文章的标志词:与第一种文章类似,概况上是条件结论结构,本质为因果结构, 即结论是条件的诠释。(不要关心文章的推导进程,只需从文中拎出所要诠释的工具说它对即可)

三、文章是类比论证,假定,增强找类似点,削弱找分歧点。


these othersmorally.

of food.

Which of thefollowing, if true, would most seriously weaken the conclusion drawn above。

(B)It is less costlyto accept a flawed productthan to rejecta flawless one.

Which of thefollowing, if true, would most weaken the argument above。

含有硫磺(sulfa)来猜测颗粒巨细。假定:我该当是他人的妻子。(留心侧重点)
andone or

(B) It is easier for crimessuch as bookkeeping fraud to go unprosecuted than it is crimes such as1. The population of elephant seals, reduced by hunting to perhaps afew dozen animals early in thispressured by management.

necessary 后的信息文中没有。

Which of thefollowing, if true, casts the most doubt on the conclusion drawn above。(读懂文章的推导进程,认可究竟A,对文章的猜测偏向 B 竣事评价)

fear of enormous destruction such as the Second Warproduced has had a dramatic deterrent effect.

of cars. In order to reduce the number of cars on theroad, the government is raising taxes on the cost

4.评价。

in their own reelection. Therefore, if public policy ishostile to, say, environmental concerns, it is notpresented in the survey。”题目:从文中能推出马克思以为这本书应从什么角度斟酌题目。the

The statement concerning what the environmentalistsrecently discovered plays which of the following roles in the argument。

(2) 他因。

3. 削弱。

(A)Engineeringstudents are working less because, in a booming market they are spending more and

observed.

A.Both 1 and 2 supportthe conclusion.

(E) Large companies are in general morelikely than small companies to diversity the marketsproducts.

(E)Althoughthe benefits of artificial-hip implant surgery have remained substantially the same over

2.无关词消除法。1)桥梁型。所

英文标志词:evaluate, appraisal.(D)Largecompanies typically have more oftheir profits invested in otherbusiness than do small4. “On the whole,”Ms. Dennis remarked, “engineering students are lazier now that they used to be.I

“Government” does not exist as an independent entitydefining policy. Instead there exists a group of
1. Artificialseaweed made of plastic has been placed on a section of coast in order toreverse beach

The argumentabove requires which of the following assumption。

1.诠释功效。但人们可以依照 1comet

offshore oilexploration.

(D) Countries that are unableto produce enough meat for theirpopulations have become a new andlucrative market for United States meat producers.

4.时辰纷歧致。. 第一种文章条件结论结构

(D) general practitioners inthe United States do not as a ruleexamine a patient who is a candidate for surgerybefore sending the patientto a surgeon.

(E) D.galeata producestwice as many offspring per individual in any period of time does D. hyalina.
has

of the fact thatbreeding occurred, tamarinds were viewed as monogamous.

(C)未获得 t 的药物治疗。inheritance.

4. 评价。Comet 颗粒必须有充实的巨细不被烧光而穿过大气层,才华照顾上 sulfa

Which of thefollowing, if true, would most strength the conclusion above。incumbents enjoy an overwhelming advantage over their challengers inelections for the United

(2) B 存在。

The conclusionin the argument above is based on which of the following assumptions。more timeinvestigating different job opportunities.(C)Maple syrup is producedin rural areas that sufferfrom high unemployment.weather patterns.for

the other, andrejecting only products found flawed byboth. The argument above requires which of the following assumption。但就算证据正确,由于 4 喝可乐的人经常在喝之前已经是心力衰竭者(E)For any given fatalityresulting from a car or motorcycle accident,there is a hospital in

(C)Thereliability of storm-detecting radarsystems is determined by their accuracy in predicting

(B) Predators of zooplankton,such as white-fish and perch, live and feednear the surface of the lake duringthe day.(E)Otherbirds of prey, such as the osprey, the bald cage, and the brown pclican, are found in the

填空(难文章严酷)
companies.

how extensivelyit is discussed on television news shows. Television news shows report more

blame B on/forA; B is responsible for A; credit A to B.

(E)A smallernumber of people die on the roads in New Jersey than in most other states.

以不能说明可乐致使心功效衰退。if

(E) Other species of mammalshave retained habits of caution and alertness because they have not been protected as endangered species.

common storiesthat have little visual drama such as bookkeeping fraud.

A, unless B. B A, A B3. 彗星(comet)进入 A 星球大气层前的颗粒巨细没有被观察到。5. Statistics overfour consecutive years showed that four percent more automobile accidentshappened

第二章:五大题型

1. 归纳

第六节:逻辑题型总结


间接推结论:我去了。

increase therisk of cancer in recipients after about 45 years of use. Thoughthese implantssame area as is the peregrine falcon.2)他因。三.再看选项。

(D) Viewers of television newsshow tend to overestimate the number of fires and motor vehicle

(C)Annualautomobile safety inspections contribute significantly to holding down New Jersey’s

(C) Competition from the growing fish industry has forced meatproducers to sell meat at bargain prices in an attemptto attract more consumers.

energy-efficientas those currently available.



male-female pairs, because otherwise, serious fightserupted between unrelated females.

The explanationgiven above rests on an assumption that5. A test of theNational Weather Service’s stormdetecting radar systems found that the 1957system is(B)Didsome of the men surveyed gain less than 18 pounds during the time they were married。2. 诠释抵牾。

A is necessary to B. BA A depend/draw/base on B. AB

(E) there are no unnecessary surgicaloperations performed in Canada.

(A)A significant number ofthe organs used in transplants come from people who die in car1、是支持中心结论 2(mid conclusion)evidence2、是 mid conclusion,支持 conclusion3

(A)Insome of the area where red tides occur, neither clams nor sea otters are indigenous species.treating

英文标志词:assume,assumption, presuppose, additional premise, not true unless, depend on, relyon.

Which of the following, if it occurred between the early1960’s and now, gives the strongest support1. Because incumbent membersof Congress are given a great deal of attention by the news media

(1) 桥梁型。


sand buildup on otherwise very similar sections of coast withoutartificial seaweed.to pay2)他因。

(A)Thesuppression of fighting between related females serves to protect their commongenetic

(A)不大要被完整根治 tC ® A3、是

(B)The conclusion of a key term in the argument

A究竟(B)The number of car and motorcycleaccidents will increasesignificantly during the next

① 工具。not replaced by more energy-efficient models.(C)The social system of tamarinds requires monogamous pairing.

第一种文章的标志词: 文中:since A,B;A,therefore B; A,conclude B; A,clear B;

为标志。3. Since 1945 therehave been numerous international confrontations as tense as those thatprecipitated

(C)Incumbentmembers of Congress are frequently critical of the amount of attention given to them1. The population of peregrinefalcons declined rapidly during the 1950’s and 1960’s and

(A)People who are mentallyhealthy will be treated morally by others.

Field studies were not used because they were costly anddifficult. Tamarinds were kept caged in

¬¾¾¾ B

(B)Almostall artificial-hip implant recipients receive their implants at an age whenthey are unlikely2. Twenty percentof all energy consumed in the United States is consumed by home appliances. Ifbecause of governmental perversity but becauseelected officials believethat.

following the switch back to standard time than occurredthe week before each event. These statistics二、结论有比力级(归纳题,答案也有一样的比力。

题目中:explanation, interpretation,hypothesis.

3.比力级。

第四节:填空。

英文标志词:▁▁和 complete the sentence(A)Thegovernment already requires maple-syrup harvestersto submit their facilities to licensingby

(C)Home-appliancemanufacturers now have thetechnology to produce appliances that are

1. 假定。(C)Artificialseaweed of another material whichhad been previously developed by the inventor

(D) Whichever system performs the second inspectionneeds to inspect only products not rejected by the first system.(E)Most of the significant advances in stormdetecting technology were made in the 1950s.(D)Technologicalimprovements in maple-syrupharvesting have reduced production costs.

(B) Many businesses report asignificant decrease in absenteeism during periods when employees feel

完成最初一句话,且与文章前面某处相分歧五.句子感导。这就证实了t 这类病从未被根治过。我是人。

1New Jersey hasone of the lowest motor vehicle fatalityrates in the country, and itis one of the few

(E) Meat producers have invested large amount of money onadvertising in order to win back consumers who have decreasedtheir meat consumption.

(C) People who are mentally healthy must haveself-respect in other to be treated morallyby others.读文章方式:首先分析黑体字部分是 evidence 还是 conclusion,然后经过转折词判定 evidence

Not A, unless B. AB

A究竟false
needed during a
that participated in the Second World War.

(E)并未反复沾染上 t

continuallyearning the respect of others they esteem. They can earn this respect only by二.无关词消除法。7 和本文的逻辑推导无关,称作 suggestion,其职位一般在文章的最初。

(E)easier to handle inwind than ultralight aircraft

猜测缘由第三种文章变态结构

3. Most television viewersestimate how frequently a particular type of accident or crime occurs bytwice as

stories thatinclude dramatic pictures such as fires and motor vehicle accidents than theydo

(A) The government of Maraviais in the process of building a significant number of roadways.eight days, milk prices would drop, but product quality would beunaffected.

(D)Theamount of recent sand buildup on that section ofcoast is the same as the amount of recent

(A)After the First World War, the fearof great future destruction was as intense as it was after the

第一节:归纳

英文标志词:conclusion; inferred; implied; supported; if above true, then it isalso true. 读文章方式:不要关心文章的推导进程,尽管削减思维,认可文章正确,只抓信息一.公共元素直推法。Comet 颗粒自己一定是不含 sulfa 的, 2A 星球云层含有多量(D)If the clams in a given areas are contaminated with toxin, seaotters move to other areas in search(D)Starling,house sparrows, and blue jays-birdsthe peregrine falcon prey on—were not adversely

读文章方式:不要关心文章的推导进程,只要晓得文章说了什么即可,留心文章前后经过相同词的毗连。四、文章结构为:办法方针,答案中含办法。C ® B ,

识解题。and(E)Maple-syrup prices have risen many times in the past, though never before at the rate

average woman gains 23 pounds and the average man gains18 pounds during 13 years of marriage.Medical

failed to add sand to coastline in past trials.

¾¾¾¾® B

2. 证据剖明:1 喝可乐的人中心肌衰退的比例跨越凡人

2.非究竟性。most, any, cannot

(E)Althoughvery small amounts of the toxin producedduring a red tide are not harmful, large doses. 第二种文章因果结构

A究竟violent crime and vandalism did.

rejections arevery costly, monkey will be saved by installing both systems, instead of either

(D) In other species ofmammals, some members of the species are genetically better equipped to withstanda disease or event that destroysother members of the species.

last three years people in the United States have beeneating less meat. The good news is that during

If A, thenB. ABA究竟(A) Most consumers keepmilk no more than three days after purchase.

3.削弱。

(E)A time change at any othertime of year would not produce a similar increasein accidentB.1 support conclusionand 2 support 1.

2.与文章前面所给信息相分歧。AB

pollution in Maravia.to the argument above。(B)Most states are skeptical that annualautomobile safety inspections can reduce fatality rates.

erosion. The inventor of the seaweed has concluded thatthe recent buildup of sand on that section of

第五节:句子感导题。

show that these time changes adversely affect the alertness ofCalifornia drivers.by the news media.

第二种文章的标志词: 文中:A is due to B; Ais attribute to B; A is result of B;1.完成文章最初一句话。AB

(C) The number of fires andmotor vehicle accidents greatly increases after each television news

(D) Ninety percent of thepopulation of Maravia is very prosperous and has a substantial amount ofdisposable income.

optimum.

the past decade, the price of the surgery has risen considerably.

(B)the population of the UnitedStates is not larger than that ofCanada. (C)United States patientssometimes travel to Canada forcertain kinds of surgery.

二.出格消除法无关词消除法

flaw

第三种文章的标志词:与第一种文章类似,概况上是条件结论结构,本质为因果结构, 即结论是条件的诠释。4, 5 均支持 conclusion6 的建立。close to

all-time low in the early 1970’s. The decline wasattributed by scientists to the widespread use of the(A) Why was the period of time studiedin the survey 13 years, rather than 12 or 14。

(C)not as safe as ultralight aircraftwho were seeking reelection won.二.归纳。

当增强来做。桥梁型。

environmentalists becausethe nets needlessly kill thousands of marine animals annually. However, environmentalistshave recently discovered that an electrified cable buried beneath theperiphery of swimming areas causes sharks to swim away while harming neither humans nor marine life. Hence,by installing such cables, resort communities will be able to maintain tourismwhile satisfying environmentalists’ concerns.2. Recent surveys show that many people who seek media help areunder a great deal of stress.

enough to replace the amount lost during storms on thatsection of coast in the last twenty years.reached an

Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakensthe deterrent theory mentioned above。

2.Experienced pilots often have more trouble than novice pilots in learning tofly the newly developed

today. It can be concluded that maple-syrup harvestershave been artificially inflating prices and that

(B) Other species of mammals have increased their knowledge of dangersthough the experience of generation after generation of animals.

conclusion 间的关系。(不要关心文章的推导进程,尽管削减思维,认可文章正确,只抓信息)
(B)In the time since theuse of DDT was banned in 1972, thepopulation of peregrine falcons

Which of thefollowing, if true, world most seriously weaken the inventor’s conclusion。
1)断桥型。

3. Inspectionsystem X and inspection system Y, though based on different principles, eachdetect all

product flawsbut they each also erroneously reject three percent of flawless products. Since首先分析黑体字部分是 evidence 还是 conclusion,然后经过转折词判定 evidence

1.公共元素直推法。

apparentdiscrepancy above。

been steadilyincreasing.news reporters available for assignment.

1. The use of nets at beachresorts to protect swimming areas from sharks has been criticized byconclusion 间的关系。

blame A on/forB; B is responsible for A; credit A to B.2. The town ofStavanger, Norway, was quiet and peaceful until early 1960’s, when Stavangerbecame

(E) Any way of detecting flaws, other than by usingeither system X or system Y,requires complete disassembly of theproducts.

3. 痴人型思维。

英文标志词:boldface, play roles.this same time period meat producer’s profits have risen steadily.

vicinity in needof an organ for a transplant.

(C) Four years is not asufficiently long period of time over which to judge the phenomenon described.(C)Peregrine falcons, likeother birds of prey, abandon eggsthat fallen out of the nest, even


(B)Psychologists have determined that the fear of retaliation tends to temper aggressiveness among


know because fewer and fewer of my students regularly dothe work they are assigned.” The conclusion drawn above depends on which of thefollowing assumptions。C ® B

1.假定。

(C) In their price range, system as X and Y are the leasterror-prone inspection systems on the market.

do

Which of thefollowing, if true, gives the strongest support to the scientists claim。

1. Scientists now believe thatartificial-hip implants, previously thought to be safe, may actually

(A)The people of Stavanger rarely regret that their town waschosen to be Norway’s center

scare and the water cold. D. galeata remains near the warm surfacewhere food is abundant. Even though D.galeata grows and reprocess much faster,its population is often outnumbered by D. hyaline.other species of mammals are less likely than elephant seals tobecome extinct。. Which of the following best completes thepassage below。

Which of thefollowing, if true during the last three years, contributes most to aresolution of

doubtful that this many donor organs will be available,since the number of fatalities resulting from

(E)Most people report thatbeing in a hospital or an infirmary is a stressful situation.

英文标志词:weaken, cast doubt, argueagainst, damage, counter, challenge, refute, jeopardize, undermine, drawback,flaw, criticism, reasoning error, weakness.(A)Theamount of recent sand buildup on that section of coast was less than had beenpredicted onweather forecasting services.

② 点。(D)Thesupport that political station actioncommittees provide to challengers for congressionalto live morethan an additional 30 years.

③ 分类。AB

增强(偶然换同义词,较严酷)

(C)In order to make the most of scare food resources, D. hyalinematures more slowly thanoil boom.

car and motorcycle accidents has been dropping steadilyover the past decade. The argument above makes which of the followingassumptions。(E)Theoil boom necessitated the buildingof wider roads for the increased traffic inStavanger.

A,obviously B;if A,then B; by A,in order to B; plan A,to B.

GMAT逻辑总纲

第一部分:逻辑总纲第一章:做题步伐

4. 染上 t 这类病的人一次又一次反复爆发。affected by DDT in their habitats.

2. 归纳(假定,增强,削弱,评价)

given year havebeen very unreliable.more artificial seaweed would need to be put in place every fouryears.
should

(B)environmental concernsare being accommodated as well as public funds permit

statesthat require extensive annual automobile safety inspections. Therefore,all states(A) DDT was not generally in use in areas devotedto heavy industry.

(E)Will the reported gains be maintained over the lifetimesof the persons surveyed。

第三节:诠释。


fatality rate.

(D) There are no other factors such as schoolvacations or holiday celebrations that cause accident rates to rise during these weeks.the basis of the results obtained in controlled experiments.

(B)It would not be expensive to produce home appliances that are energy-efficient.

第三种文章变态结构
三.诠释。

Only if A, then B. BA Must by A, inorder to B. BA If only A, then B. AB竣事削

(2) not+ 削弱。

radar system must be less sophisticated than the radartechnology used in the 1957 system. The conclusion drawn above depends on whichof the following questionable assumptions。归纳最严酷

2. 消除法通用消除法和无关词消除法

英 文 标 志 词 : explain, reason, account for, provide a rationale for, reconcile thediscrepancy/paradox.

(A) Other species of mammalshave large populations, so the loss of a fewmembers of the species is not significant.

States Congress.

2.诠释抵牾。(A)patientsin the United States do not have a greater need for surgery than do patients in Canada.

二.再读文章(随题型分歧而发生变更

large companies.examinations.today as it was forty years ago.

(B)Theoperations of small companies frequently rely on the same technologies as theoperations of

(D) There is a marked increase in the number of illness treated at college infirmariesaround the time ofextinct than are most other species.

Which of the following, if true, would most stronglyindicate that the hypothesis described in the last

appliances that are twice as energy-efficient as thosecurrently available are produced, this figure will

题目中:explanation, interpretation,hypothesis.Which of the following, if true, would help resolve the apparentparadox presented above。三. 假定题补充。

(E)A statement of the positionthat is being argued against

猜测¬¾¾¾

Which of thefollowing, if true, most seriously weakens the argument above

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