about 30°C(normal brood-comb temperature is 33-36°C)for the disease to develop.
spear points used for hunting mammoth were first found in 1932.
(A) Larvae in small colonies are more likely to pass the infection to adult honeybees than are
remains within the normal range.
study in question, a probable conclusion of the researchers would have been that
(B) protests adult bees from contracting chalk brood infection
(E) contrast alternative interpretations of certain date
(A) discuss the findings and implications of a particular study
Alaska around 11,500 years ago and followed an "ice-free corridor" between two large
6. Honey bee 的 fungee
Canadian ice sheets (the Laurentide and Cordilleran) to reach unglaciated lands to the south.
Pacific coast into Alaska and northwestern Canada and eventually south to Peru and Chile by
(B) honeybees are incapable of purposely raising hive temperatures
Accordingly, chalk brood is most common in spring and in small colonies. A recent study
(C) A. apis cannot be completely eradicated throughup-regulation of temperature along
Ingestion of food containing spores of the pathogen Ascosphaera apis causes a fatal
submerged, making investigation difficult.
would have provided abundant food resources and easier and faster movement than land
6.4. According to the passage, which of the following is true of chalk brood infection among
Clovis culture including sites located in South America. Monte Verde, a well-studied site located
6.1. The primary purpose of the passage is to
revealed that honeybees responsible for hive-temperature maintenance purposely raised the
(E) Infected larvae exhibit visible symptoms of disease for a significant time before death.
(E) does not have an effect on uninfected broods
and Japan indicate boats were in use as far back as 25,000 to 40,000 years ago. Sea routes
(A) does not occur when hive temperatures are within normal range
The traditional theory held that the first Americans crossed the land bridge from Siberia to
small bands moving on foot across the middle of the land bridge between Siberia and Alaska
hives’ temperature when colonies were inoculated with A.apis this “fever,” or up-regulation of
and into the continents. Emerging evidence suggests that people with boats moved along the
number of workers available for temperature maintenance).
routes. Many coastal areas were unglaciated at this time, providing opportunities for landfall
(E) honeybee larvae may benefit from increased hive temperature even when there is no A.
and their time of arrival.
communicate the ingestion of the pathogen. Temperature returned to normal by the end of the
well as that the fever does not result merely from normal colony growth (i.e., an increase in the
(C) outline the methods used to investigate a problem
date? A coastal migration route is now gaining more acceptance, rather than the older view of
(D) provide evidence to support a controversial theory
12,500 years ago—and perhaps much earlier. Archaeological evidence in Australia, Melanesia,
along the way. Several early sites along the coast of Canada, California, Peru, Ecuador, and
temperature, occurred before any larvae died, suggesting that the response is preventative and
larvae in large ones.
(D) Larvae fail to develop symptoms of the disease when their brood –comb temperature
(A) up-regulation of temperature is a preventative measure against chalkbrood
(C) occurs prior to the death of any larvae
along a river near southern central Chile, dates 12,500 years ago. This site contains the buried
(D) honeybee larvae have a mechanism to alert adult honeybees to the presenceof A. apis
(B) Infection with chalk brood induces larvae to raise their hive’s temperature.
(B) illustrate a process that formerly had been misunderstood
These first inhabitants, whose archaeological sites are scattered across North and South
preventative because their study showed that such fever
6.3. The passage implies that if hive temperature had not returned to normal by the end of the
fungal disease known as chalk brood in honeybee larvae. However, larvae must be chilled to
Chile date between 10,000 and 12,000 years ago. Many potential coastal sites are now
Recent discoveries in New World archaeology along with new scientific methods for
There is now convincing evidence of human habitation sites that date earlier than the
study, suggesting that increased temperature is not optimal when broods are not infected, as
6.2. According to the passage, researchers concluded that fever in honeybee coloniesis
(D) is more likely to occur in spring than in summer
America, were called the Clovis people, named after the town in New Mexico where their fluted
medicinal and edible plants. How did people manage to settle this far south at such an early
remnants of dwellings, stone tools including large bifacial projectile points, and preserved
that either honeybee workers detect the infection before symptoms are visible or larvae
analyzing data have led to new ideas regarding the origin of the first peoples of the Americas
(C) The infection is more likely to affect larvae in winter than in spring.